Depression

CENTER FOR EPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDIES DEPRESSION SCALE

For each of the following 20 items, please select the choice that best describes how you have felt over the past week: Rarely or none of the time (less than once a day) Some or a little of the time (1-2 days) Occasionally or a moderate amount of the time (3-4 days) Most or all of the time (5-7 days)
1. I was bothered by things that usually don’t bother me.
2. I did not feel like eating; my appetite was poor.
3. I felt I could not shake off the blues even with the help from my family and friends.
4. I felt I was not as good as other people.
5. I had trouble keeping my mind on what I was doing.
6. I felt depressed.
7. I felt that everything I did was an effort.
8. I felt hopeless about the future.
9. I thought my life had been a failure.
10. I felt fearful.
11. My sleep was restless.
12. I was unhappy.
14. I felt lonely.
15. People were unfriendly.
16. I did not enjoy life.
17. I had crying spells.
18. I felt sad.
19. I felt that people disliked me.
20. I could not “get going.”

Reference: Radloff, L. S. (1977). The CES-D scale: A self report depression scale for research in the general population. Applied Psychological Meansurement 1, 385-401.

Scoring the CES-D

Step 1: For each answer, assign the following value:

0 – Rarely or none of the time (

1 – Some or a little of the time (1-2 days)

2 – Occasionally or a moderate amount of the time (3-4 days)

3 – Most or all of the time (5-7 days)

Step 2: Add the total scores and refer to this scale:

Ÿ If the score is 22 or higher, the patient may be suffering from a major depression

Ÿ If the score is 15 to 21, the patient may be suffering from mild to moderate depression

Ÿ If the score is below 15, this test does not indicate that the patient is depressed

Reference: Radloff, L. S. (1977). The CES-D scale: A self report depression scale for research in the general population. Applied Psychological Meansurement 1, 385-401.

Note: This questionnaire is provided for educational purposes only. It is not a substitute for consulting with a health professional. Even if an individual’s score on the questionnaire is “negative,” it is very important to consult with a primary care doctor or a mental health professional if there are concerns.